Journal of Health Care and Research


Journal of Health Care and Research

About this Journal

Journal of Health Care and Research is an open access international journal publishing original peer-reviewed research articles. The Journal is a Tri-annually Publication. It is dedicated to the production of commitments in all fields of exploratory and connected inquires about health sciences. The editors welcome unique commitments that have not been published and are not under thought somewhere else.

Papers acknowledged for publication are double-blind refereed to ensure academic integrity. This Journal endeavours to give the most happening and best research……

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  • All the published articles are open access which means it’s free to access from anywhere in the world.
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  • We offer fast publication while providing rigorous peer review to maintain the integrity of information.
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Latest Papers


Background: Cardiometabolic diseases like type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, heart failure, and other cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity across the globe. These conditions are directly attributed to modifiable behaviors such as sedentary activity, poor diet, excessive consumption of alcohol, or smoking. Efforts aimed towards their prevention and management are, therefore, not only essential in the accomplishment of the healthy populations but also for eliminating the associated cost and health burdens. Dietary change is an important approach to the promotion of cardiometabolic health. Omega 3 (C20–22 ω 3) polyunsaturated fatty acids have pleiotropic effects on the functioning of cells, control inflammatory factors, and cellular events in vascular endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. The hypolipemic, anti-arrhythmic, and anti-inflammatory properties of fatty acids offer cardioprotection. Government agencies and national heart associations recommend increased consumption of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplements and fish to prevent cardiometabolic diseases.

Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this study is to investigate the role played by ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in promoting cardiometabolic health.

Methods: The research study searched databases such as MEDLINE®, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL® and the Cochrane Library for relevant research studies evaluating the function/benefits of polyunsaturated fatty acids particularly ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in promoting cardiometabolic functions published between 2011 and 2020. A total of 77 research studies were identified and used in the meta-analysis.

Results: Results from the meta-analysis indicated that polyunsaturated fatty acids lower the risk for cardiovascular disease by limiting inflammation of blood vessels, reducing thrombosis, increasing levels of high-density lipoproteins, reducing levels of low-density lipoproteins, and reducing risk factors associated with hypertension.

Conclusion: Given the benefits of polyunsaturated fatty acids lower the risk for cardiovascular diseases indicted in the meta-analysis. Therefore, human diets must contain the required amounts of PUFA due to the associated benefits.

Author(s): Younes I, Elkattawy S*, Noori M, Posimreddy S

Unfortunately, 35 million people worldwide suffer from drug use disorder while only one in seven people receive treatment. The health impacts combined with the socioeconomic burden of drug abuse are too numerous to count. It is well known that all organ systems are adversely affected by drug use including but not limited to the cardiovascular, respiratory, neurological, and renal. We will focus our attention on the effects of Methamphetamines on the cardiovascular system. Methamphetamines are known to be highly addictive stimulants with significant cardiovascular implications. We have gathered information from the literature available on methamphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy (MACM) and will discuss a case of a 58-year-old male, with no past medical history, who presented with dyspnea secondary to MACM.


Background: Down syndrome is an extensively studied chromosomal disorder characterized by mental retardation and distinct physical manifestations, and it is the second most common cause of mental retardation in Iraqi children after idiopathic mental retardation. However, the chronic cutaneous conditions associated with the syndrome have received relatively inadequate attention. This paper aims to determine chronic cutaneous disorders persisting more than six months or reoccurring over six months in Down syndrome patients.

Patients and Methods: Twenty-seven patients (17 males and 10 females) with Down syndrome were observed at the Children Teaching Hospital of Baghdad medical City and the Medical Consultation Clinic of Iraq headquarter of Copernicus Scientists international panel in Baghdad during 2018 and 2019. Their ages when they were first seen ranged from 4 months to 30 years.

Results: Chronic cutaneous disorders were observed in four patients of the twenty-seven patients observed. Three patients including a thirteen-year-old girl and two boys had alopecia areata, and a man aged thirty years had familial baldness and Tinea corporis of the dorsum of the right hand.

Conclusion: This paper highlights the association between Down syndrome and Tinea corporis which has not been noticeably emphasized in the medical literature.

Author(s): Fasry AA, Dissanayake DM, Wanasinghe DC, Jenitha J, Damayanthi RP, Karunakaran KE*

Background: Carcinoma of cervix is a preventable illness. Early sexual debut has a strong association. Sexually transmittable Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the major causative agent. Cervical screening and vaccines hold a major role in its prevention or early detection. This study aims to assess the knowledge on the aspects of carcinoma of cervix among the students of Eastern University, Sri Lanka, to evaluate the risks of contracting the disease.

Methods: A self- administered pretested questionnaire has been used. Data was analyzed using the statistical package of social science (SPSS v.18).

Results: A total of 650 students were included. 59.4% reported of ‘heard about cervical cancer’; among male cohort 64.3% and female 56.6%. 55.7% of students had very poor or poor knowledge on the warning features. About 48% (n=314) of the students were not aware of the cervical screening program conducted in the health-care system. Five hundred and twenty-one students (80.2%) reported that they have never had sexual intercourse, thus having a low risk of contracting HPV while 25.2% of male (n=60) and 6.8% of female (n=28) students had high or moderate risk with the statistically significant association (Chi-sq=42.293, p=0.000) between gender and the risk of contracting HPV. About the HPV Vaccine, 17.7% of the students (n=115) had adequate knowledge. Students of the Faculty of Arts & Culture contributed the poorest score in all aspects while students of the Faculty of Health Care Sciences had been much aware of.

Conclusions: The study revealed the poor status of the undergraduate students of the aspects of cervical cancer and also created awareness among the participants to know more with the necessity to develop online learning modules.


Objective: This study reports the prevalence of obesity among patients in a primary care clinic at a university teaching hospital in rural East Texas and explores potential disparities and comorbidities.

Method: The study was a retrospective review of a deidentified, non-relinkable copy of the electronic health records for 6,955 patients who visited the Family Medicine Clinic of the University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler North Campus between August 31, 2017, and August 1, 2018.

Results: The prevalence of obesity was 43.2% with an increased likelihood of being obese among females compared to males (OR=1.49, 95%CI=1.35, 1.64), among blacks compared to whites (OR=1.24, 95%CI=1.11, 1.38), among patients 40-65 years old compared to those younger than 18 years (OR=8.83, 95%CI=7.31, 10.68) and a reduced likelihood among patients with public insurance/grants (OR=0.88, 95%CI=0.79, 0.98) and self-pay (OR=0.81, 95%CI=0.71, 0.93) compared to those with private insurance. Those who were obese were also more likely to report having hypertension (OR=2.59, 95%CI=2.35, 2.87), and diabetes (OR=3.26, 95%CI=2.85, 3.73).

Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of obesity among rural primary care patients in East Texas especially among the female, minority black and 40-65 years age groups as well as among patients with diabetes and hypertension. With this facility being a teaching hospital, these findings suggest the need for increased emphasis in the training of medical Residents on the screening and management of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and associated comorbidities in these groups, with special focus on the root cause.


Aim: The purpose of the study was to review the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) as a prophylactic treatment in adults with chronic daily headache (CDH).

Material and methods: The research participated in 100 patients with CDH comparing two groups of patients. Group I, 54 patients (31 women and 23 men) treated by BTX-A and group II, 46 patients (27 women and 21 men) treated with the classical method, with an average age of 35 ± 9 years. The patient’s condition in group I was assessed on the third day, on the 7th day and the 15th day after the BTX-A injection and assessed every 15 days for 3 months, in group II the patients were evaluated every 15 days.

Results: After 3 months headache severity in group I: 2 (3,7%) patients had no changes, 7 (12,9%) patients with less than 50 percent reduction in pain, 23 (42,6%) reported 70 to 95 percent pain relief, and 22 (40,8%) had complete relief. Group II: 12 (26,1%) patients had no changes, 16 (34,8%) patients with less than 50 percent reduction in pain, 10 (21,7%) reported 70 to 95 percent pain relief, and 8 (17,4%) had complete relief. The mean change from baseline frequency of headaches ranged from 3 ± 1 headaches per 30‐day periods in-group I and 7 ± 2 headaches in group II. The patient’s in-group I used painkillers for an acute headache 4 ± 1 day, compared to 10 ± 2 days for the group II per 30-day period.

Conclusion: In this study, BTX-A injections are safe, well-tolerated, not any treatment-related serious adverse events reported. BTX-A injections recommended optimizing clinical outcomes for patients with CDH without using other prophylactic medications. Although, further observations are needed.

Management of Chronic Daily Headache with Focus on Botulinum Toxin Type A
Management of Chronic Daily Headache with Focus on Botulinum Toxin Type A