Journal of Health Care and Research


Journal of Health Care and Research

About this Journal

Journal of Health Care and Research is an open access international journal publishing original peer-reviewed research articles. The Journal is a Tri-annually Publication. It is dedicated to the production of commitments in all fields of exploratory and connected inquires about health sciences. The editors welcome unique commitments that have not been published and are not under thought somewhere else.

Papers acknowledged for publication are double-blind refereed to ensure academic integrity. This Journal endeavours to give the most happening and best research……

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  • All the published articles are open access which means it’s free to access from anywhere in the world.
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Latest Papers


Background: Down syndrome is an extensively studied chromosomal disorder characterized by mental retardation and distinct physical manifestations, and it is the second most common cause of mental retardation in Iraqi children after idiopathic mental retardation. However, the chronic cutaneous conditions associated with the syndrome have received relatively inadequate attention. This paper aims to determine chronic cutaneous disorders persisting more than six months or reoccurring over six months in Down syndrome patients.

Patients and Methods: Twenty-seven patients (17 males and 10 females) with Down syndrome were observed at the Children Teaching Hospital of Baghdad medical City and the Medical Consultation Clinic of Iraq headquarter of Copernicus Scientists international panel in Baghdad during 2018 and 2019. Their ages when they were first seen ranged from 4 months to 30 years.

Results: Chronic cutaneous disorders were observed in four patients of the twenty-seven patients observed. Three patients including a thirteen-year-old girl and two boys had alopecia areata, and a man aged thirty years had familial baldness and Tinea corporis of the dorsum of the right hand.

Conclusion: This paper highlights the association between Down syndrome and Tinea corporis which has not been noticeably emphasized in the medical literature.

Author(s): Fasry AA, Dissanayake DM, Wanasinghe DC, Jenitha J, Damayanthi RP, Karunakaran KE*

Background: Carcinoma of cervix is a preventable illness. Early sexual debut has a strong association. Sexually transmittable Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the major causative agent. Cervical screening and vaccines hold a major role in its prevention or early detection. This study aims to assess the knowledge on the aspects of carcinoma of cervix among the students of Eastern University, Sri Lanka, to evaluate the risks of contracting the disease.

Methods: A self- administered pretested questionnaire has been used. Data was analyzed using the statistical package of social science (SPSS v.18).

Results: A total of 650 students were included. 59.4% reported of ‘heard about cervical cancer’; among male cohort 64.3% and female 56.6%. 55.7% of students had very poor or poor knowledge on the warning features. About 48% (n=314) of the students were not aware of the cervical screening program conducted in the health-care system. Five hundred and twenty-one students (80.2%) reported that they have never had sexual intercourse, thus having a low risk of contracting HPV while 25.2% of male (n=60) and 6.8% of female (n=28) students had high or moderate risk with the statistically significant association (Chi-sq=42.293, p=0.000) between gender and the risk of contracting HPV. About the HPV Vaccine, 17.7% of the students (n=115) had adequate knowledge. Students of the Faculty of Arts & Culture contributed the poorest score in all aspects while students of the Faculty of Health Care Sciences had been much aware of.

Conclusions: The study revealed the poor status of the undergraduate students of the aspects of cervical cancer and also created awareness among the participants to know more with the necessity to develop online learning modules.

An overview of modern medical society shows that various diseases of metabolic syndrome are increasing in both developed and developing countries. Among them, hypertension and diabetes are the most frequent diseases which require continuous treatment for years. They are lifestyle-related diseases and need the usual adequate habitual style for each person.


Objective: This study reports the prevalence of obesity among patients in a primary care clinic at a university teaching hospital in rural East Texas and explores potential disparities and comorbidities.

Method: The study was a retrospective review of a deidentified, non-relinkable copy of the electronic health records for 6,955 patients who visited the Family Medicine Clinic of the University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler North Campus between August 31, 2017, and August 1, 2018.

Results: The prevalence of obesity was 43.2% with an increased likelihood of being obese among females compared to males (OR=1.49, 95%CI=1.35, 1.64), among blacks compared to whites (OR=1.24, 95%CI=1.11, 1.38), among patients 40-65 years old compared to those younger than 18 years (OR=8.83, 95%CI=7.31, 10.68) and a reduced likelihood among patients with public insurance/grants (OR=0.88, 95%CI=0.79, 0.98) and self-pay (OR=0.81, 95%CI=0.71, 0.93) compared to those with private insurance. Those who were obese were also more likely to report having hypertension (OR=2.59, 95%CI=2.35, 2.87), and diabetes (OR=3.26, 95%CI=2.85, 3.73).

Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of obesity among rural primary care patients in East Texas especially among the female, minority black and 40-65 years age groups as well as among patients with diabetes and hypertension. With this facility being a teaching hospital, these findings suggest the need for increased emphasis in the training of medical Residents on the screening and management of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and associated comorbidities in these groups, with special focus on the root cause.


Aim: The purpose of the study was to review the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) as a prophylactic treatment in adults with chronic daily headache (CDH).

Material and methods: The research participated in 100 patients with CDH comparing two groups of patients. Group I, 54 patients (31 women and 23 men) treated by BTX-A and group II, 46 patients (27 women and 21 men) treated with the classical method, with an average age of 35 ± 9 years. The patient’s condition in group I was assessed on the third day, on the 7th day and the 15th day after the BTX-A injection and assessed every 15 days for 3 months, in group II the patients were evaluated every 15 days.

Results: After 3 months headache severity in group I: 2 (3,7%) patients had no changes, 7 (12,9%) patients with less than 50 percent reduction in pain, 23 (42,6%) reported 70 to 95 percent pain relief, and 22 (40,8%) had complete relief. Group II: 12 (26,1%) patients had no changes, 16 (34,8%) patients with less than 50 percent reduction in pain, 10 (21,7%) reported 70 to 95 percent pain relief, and 8 (17,4%) had complete relief. The mean change from baseline frequency of headaches ranged from 3 ± 1 headaches per 30‐day periods in-group I and 7 ± 2 headaches in group II. The patient’s in-group I used painkillers for an acute headache 4 ± 1 day, compared to 10 ± 2 days for the group II per 30-day period.

Conclusion: In this study, BTX-A injections are safe, well-tolerated, not any treatment-related serious adverse events reported. BTX-A injections recommended optimizing clinical outcomes for patients with CDH without using other prophylactic medications. Although, further observations are needed.

Management of Chronic Daily Headache with Focus on Botulinum Toxin Type A
Management of Chronic Daily Headache with Focus on Botulinum Toxin Type A

Background and Aim: On the background of recent developments revealing the harmful effects of contraceptive devices which are recommended by health agencies the paper aims at analyzing publications and other information material emanating from these agencies. This analysis – guided by the bioethical principle of informed consent — focuses on flawed science, ambiguous language, and misleading data.

Method and Material: The method consists of collecting and analyzing information provided by health agencies for consumers inquiring about the safety and efficacy of contraceptive products. The material comprises documents, charts, leaflets and other publications emanating from the most authoritative and most frequently consulted health agencies, in particular those active in the US and European countries.

Results and Implications: As a result of the investigation women must be advised to consult only a selected number of health agencies, especially those which take into account findings of pharmacovigilance, pharmaceutical vigilance, and scholarly publications focusing on the safety of contraception. The implications from an economic perspective are the discontinuation of funding through taxpayer money for those health agencies which continue to disseminate flawed science and demonstrate incompetence in questions about the safety of contraception.


Background: Emerging and reemerging pathogens are global challenges for public health. Coronaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses that are distributed broadly among humans, other mammals, and birds and that cause respiratory, enteric, hepatic, and neurologic diseases. the high prevalence and wide distribution of coronaviruses, the large genetic diversity and frequent recombination of their genomes, and increasing human-animal interface activities, novel coronaviruses are likely to emerge periodically in humans owing to frequent cross-species infections and occasional spillover event.

Objectives: To study the short-term morbidities and mortalities and international spread time trends of the N Corona Virus 2019 outbreak, to study, to study the explosiveness and aggressiveness of the outbreak and the gaps in response.

Methodology: Outbreak events follow up and observation study over two months has been carried out through daily statistical reports issuing by world health organizations as all as different national authorities regarding (mortalities and morbidities incidents) all over the world with specific focusing on china statistics as main sources of the outbreak. The operational definition of variables regarding case confirmation, case recovery, case admission, and case contacts has been adopted as per WHO definitions. Unofficial statistical reports excluded as a source of data.

Results: The current study showed that the number of cases of N corona-virus 2019 infection, started with (41) cases at the beginning of January 2020 increased up to 855 cases in 23rd January 2020 and 7700 cases of infection in 29th of January 2020 which keep raising and reached up to 78823 by 23rd of February as for mortalities, the current research revealed that the number of death was only (1) case in 4th of Feb 2020 increased up to 25 deaths in 23rd of February 2020 and keep raising reached up to 170 deaths in January 29th, 2020 and 2462 death case in 23rd of Feb 2020. In regards of the geographical spread of the N corona-virus 2019 infection outbreak, the study showed that on January 4th, 2020 only one country was affected which was china, on 8th of January 2020 two countries were affected as Thailand discovered cases, on 13th of January 3 countries were affected by adding Singapore to the list, on Feb 5th 27 countries reported incidence of N Corona-virus 2019 infection and reached up to 35 countries by 23rd of February.

Conclusions: The natural history and course of the current outbreak revealed high explosive nature linked to significant aggressiveness in terms of complications and mortalities, within only two months period speeded out to 35 countries worldwide and reached you 80000 incidences within only two months. The study forecasted that the peak of the outbreak is not yet attended and more dramatic events still have high potentials.

Mortalities and Morbidities Trends of COVID-19 Infection, From Explosiveness to Aggressiveness, Understanding Gaps in System Response and Transmission Chain Events
Mortalities and Morbidities Trends of COVID-19 Infection, From Explosiveness to Aggressiveness, Understanding Gaps in System Response and Transmission Chain Events
Mortalities and Morbidities Trends of COVID-19 Infection, From Explosiveness to Aggressiveness, Understanding Gaps in System Response and Transmission Chain Events