ASPLORO OPEN ACCESS PUBLICATIONS
An international peer-reviewed open access journal presenting original research contributions and scientific advances in genetics, genomics and evolutionary biology including molecular biology and molecular evolution.
Introduction:Left atrial myxoma is a rare benign tumor. It can be an embolic complication such as an ischemic stroke.
Observation: It was a 48 years old patient who was referred to our unity for the etiological investigation of an ischemic stroke. She did not have personal medical and surgical history. She had a recent right hemiplegia. The cardiac auscultation found a mitral diastolic murmur. The brain CT showed a recent ischemic stroke in the superficial and deep left sylvian territory. The transthoracic echography revealed a myxomatous mass, responsible of an obstacle of the left ventricular filling. Anticoagulation by antivitamin K (AVK) had been initiated and a resection of the mass indicated.
Conclusion: The left atrial myxoma is a rare benign tumor whose mode of revelation can be an embolic complication. The Echocardiography is reference imaging modality in diagnosis with a high sensitivity.
Megalencephaly is a neuronal migration disorder characterized by an abnormally large brain. Numerous associated syndromes and various molecular mutations have been identified as an etiology for megalencephaly, however, SCN2A mutations have not been previously described. This report highlights a case of a term male megalencephalic neonate who presents with intractable seizures, who was found to have SCN2A gene variant that has now been identified as pathogenic. This patient expands our knowledge of the phenotypic spectrum of SNC2A mutations by adding consideration for macroscopic brain findings. Currently, we have no direct link between SCN2A mutations and megalencephaly, but our patient highlights the potential overlap in disease processes. It is possible that the biochemical disturbance associated with abnormal neuronal migration also affects the neuronal circuitry, thus increasing the propensity for electrical dysfunction and manifesting as seizures.
The study aimed to determine extract yield (%), antibacterial activity, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of plant extracts from dried and fresh herbal plants (Phyllanthus amarus) against Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain causing acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in white leg shrimp (L. vannamei). The result showed that the extract yields of dry and fresh herbs reached 11.50% and 2.75%, respectively and the antibacterial activity of the two extracts both are good at concentrations from 250 to 1,000 mg/mL at the same bacterial density of 106 CFU/mL. Specifically, the diameter of the inhibition zone at 250; 500; 750 and 1,000 mg/mL concentration of dried herbal extracts reached 16.75±0.96; 18.50±1.29; 20.75±0.96 and 21.25±0.50 mm, while that of fresh herbal extracts reached 14.50±1.29; 16.25±0.50; 16.75±0.50 and 17.00±0.00 mm, respectively, with a statistically significant difference p<0.05. The result also showed that MIC values of dried and fresh extracts were defined at 125 mg/mL and 250 mg/mL, respectively and that MBC values of the extracts were 500 and 1,000 mg/mL respectively. The GC-MS analysis revealed that there were 19 natural compounds in the dried extract, in which Ethyl Linoleolate (C20H36O2) compound occupied the highest ratio (22.43%), while 2.3-Dihydro-3.5-dihydroxy-6-methy-4H-pyran-4-one (C6H8O4) was the lowest (0.24%).
The world is facing a major epidemic of diabetes mellitus (DM) & available reports suggest that all these patients are at risk of developing diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). Approximately 50 – 60% of all DFUs can be classified as neuropathic. Signs or symptoms of vascular compromise are observed in 40 to 50% of all patients with the vast majority having neuro-ischemic ulcers, and only a minority of patients has purely ischemic ulcers. Diabetic foot infections are usually polymicrobial in nature, involving both aerobes and anaerobes, which can decay any part of the body especially the distal part of the lower leg. However, one of the hidden barriers to wound healing is the presence of biofilm in chronic DFUs. Biofilms are difficult to identify & diagnose, recalcitrant to topical antibiotics & can reoccur even after sharp debridement. More than 90% of chronic wounds are complicated with biofilms. Hence, early identification and management of diabetic foot infections becomes imperative in order to prevent complications & amputation. Debridement is considered to be the gold standard treatment approach for managing DFU manifested with necrotic tissue. However, biofilm can reform even after sharp debridement and can delay healing & recovery. Also, antibiotics & few antiseptics have limited role in managing DFUs complicated with biofilm. Until recently, Cadexomer iodine, a new generation iodine formulation with microbead technology has taken a different profile in wound care. It can effectively manage biofilm along with exudate & possesses superior desloughing action. Additionally, appropriate ways of offloading, dressings & use of newer treatment strategies like negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) and / or use of growth factors can ensure faster healing & early wound closure. Although, commendable efforts in recent years have been taken in the diagnosis and treatment of DFU, it still remains a major public health concern.
Background: Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) represents a disease of successful outcome due to advances in modern medicine. A significant percentage of patients respond very well to treatment, achieving relapse free survival. However, despite appropriate treatments as many as 20% of these patients die of this disease. Risk stratification allows therapy to be selected based on specific prognostic indicators.
Procedure: A retrospective cohort study containing 25 pediatric classical HL cases were evaluated from the files of Miami Children’s Hospital Department of Pathology. The study aimed to analyze tumor-associated macrophages via CD68 immunohistochemistry in tissue obtained at the time of diagnosis. It studied the prognostic value of CD68+ histiocytes against a patient’s response to treatment and survival rates, as a possible correlation of this biomarker with outcomes.
Results: Higher levels of CD68+ macrophages was strongly correlated with a significant probability of relapsing from complete response (P=0.005), along with a greater likelihood of death from lymphoma (P=0.024). Furthermore, survival analysis demonstrated a decreased progression-free survival (P=0.001) and disease specific survival (P=0.023) when the microenvironment showed elevation of these macrophages.
Conclusions: The presence of an increased expression of CD68+ macrophages was found to be associated with a worse prognosis in a pediatric patient with HL. This study, establishes a new use for CD68, as a reliable immunohistochemical marker in pediatric patients with equivalent predictor outcomes as those reported in adult cases. This biomarker helps to identify those pediatric patients at higher risk of treatment failure, and thus provide the basis for individualized patient treatment.
Background: Neonatal cardiomyopathy is a rare disease that ranges from being asymptomatic to abruptly lethal and is not well characterized . We investigated the clinical features of five neonates with cardiomyopathy in our hospital to determine key clinical characteristics.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of five newborns who were diagnosed with cardiomyopathy between January 2000 and December 2018. The primary evaluation included reasons for diagnosis, underlying diseases, therapy, and turning point.
Results: Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) or left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) were diagnosed on the basis of cardiac murmur, while the patient with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) was diagnosed on the basis of sucking failure. Underlying diseases included Noonan syndrome and LEOPARD syndrome. All patients had received β-blockers, and those with DCM and LVNC were also administered diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The two patients with HCM underwent follow-up as out-patients. One patient with HCM died at 3 years old because of arrhythmia. The patient with DCM died due to heart failure 38 days after birth. The patient with LVNC exhibited severe heart failure after birth, requiring follow-up while considering heart transplantation.
Conclusions: Noonan syndrome and LEOPARD syndrome, which is RAS/MAPK-related diseases, should be considered in patients diagnosed HCM. Because heart failure progresses rapidly in patients with neonatal DCM and those with LVNC, planned therapy should include consideration of heart transplantation.