Journal of Health Care and Research

VOLUME-3 | ISSUE-3 | YEAR-2022

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Original Article | Open Access | J Health Care and Research. 2022 Sept 24;3(3):51-67

Prevalence of Old and New Torch Infection in Pregnant Women from Mombasa and Kisumu Counties in Kenya in 2017
Mazaher JafferiD*, Erolls Sigei

Pages: 51-67 | First Published: 24 September 2022 | DOI: 10.36502/2022/hcr.6211

Prevalence of Old and New Torch Infection in Pregnant Women from Mombasa and Kisumu Counties in Kenya in 2017

Introduction: Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Herpes simplex viruses, known briefly as TORCH are infectious agents that lead to the development of a maternal infection and may enter the intrauterine circulation at any gestational age increasing the risk of congenital malformations and abortion. Despite this, the testing for these infections is not commonly included in antenatal screenings nationwide in Kenya because it is quite costly and is also considered less prevalent in our population by obstetricians. It is mainly tested to confirm the cause of recurrent unexplained pregnancy losses in mothers with a bad obstetric history.
Objectives: Through this study, we aim to confirm the prevalence current and old TORCH infections in the pregnant women in two largely populated counties of Kenya. This would give us estimated of successful vaccination coverage of the MMR vaccine, the lowest age with exposure to the infections, and the possible benefit for conducting the test in all pregnant women. Also to identify possible biographic factors correlated with increased risk of positivity to infection in the population.
Methodology: Using stratified method of randomization and selection of centers, one of the largest centers with antenatal clinics (ANC) was chosen in each county and all their patients attending their ANC were screened for the infection using the On-Site TORCH Panel Rapid Test CTK Biotech, Inc. (San Diego, CA 92121, USA) with a specificity of between 85% and 97%. Positive results for IgM were verified using ELISA.
Results: There was extremely low prevalence of confirmed active infection of TORCH in the population (only 2 cases which did not have any complications in pregnancy as a result), but presence of old infection was at about 30% for Toxoplasma, 50% for Rubella and HSV-1, 20% for HSV-2 and 10% for CMV. There seems to be an interruption in effective Rubella vaccination around the year 1987 which would be worth investigating.
Conclusion: Testing pregnant women for TORCH is not of much benefit in pregnancy in Kenya due to low prevalence. However, the test can be used to screen populations at risk as is being conducted currently.

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Review  Article | Open Access | J Health Care and Research. 2022 Oct 08;3(3):68-72

The Role of Mutations on Gene WNT4 in Müllerian Aplasia and Hyperandrogenism Syndrome
Zahra Gholizadeh, Shahin AsadiiD*

Pages: 68-72 | First Published: 08 October 2022 | DOI: 10.36502/2022/hcr.6212

The Role of Mutations on Gene WNT4 in Müllerian Aplasia and Hyperandrogenism Syndrome

Molar aplasia and hyperandrogenism is a genetic disorder that affects the reproductive system in women. This condition is caused by abnormal growth of the molar ducts, which are structures in the fetus that form into the uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix, and upper vagina. A mutation in the WNT4 gene, located at the short arm of chromosome 1 at 1p36.12, causes molar aplasia and hyperandrogenism. This gene belongs to a family of WNT genes that play an important role in evolution before birth.

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Original  Article | Open Access | J Health Care and Research. 2022 Oct 22;3(3):73-79

Investigation of the Relationship between Mindfulness Awareness, Anxiety, Dental Anxiety, and Oral Hygiene Status in Population
Yerda OzkaniD*, Dilek Bicer, Gokhan Ozpolat, Gizem Yazdan Ozen, Faruk Cagri Onat, Recep Orbak

Pages: 73-79 | First Published: 22 October 2022 | DOI: 10.36502/2022/hcr.6213

Investigation of the Relationship between Mindfulness Awareness, Anxiety, Dental Anxiety, and Oral Hygiene Status in Population

Objectives: Attention and awareness are essential features of human nature. Mindfulness can be defined as increased attention and awareness of the experience that exists in the present moment. Dental anxiety is a state of intense restlessness that develops due to fear and delusions due to dental examination and treatment. Periodontitis, periodontal plaque, and bleeding are known as major periodontal diseases. There are many different reasons for the development of these diseases, including the education level of the person, his knowledge of health and oral health, the state of physician and hospital concerns, and awareness. Our study, it was aimed to investigate whether the level of mindfulness and dental anxiety status of individuals influences periodontal health by using different scales.
Materials and Methods: In our study, 100 systemic and psychologically healthy patients, aged 25-35, at least high school graduates, who applied to Atatürk University Faculty of Dentistry for dental examination and treatment were included. First of all, the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-1, STAI-2), Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS), and Dental Fear Survey (DFS) tests were applied to the patients. Then, a periodontal examination of the patients was performed and plaque indices and bleeding indices were determined.
Results: No correlation was found between the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and periodontal bleeding, and plaque index.

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