An Investigation of the Genetic Variability of Metabolic Syndrome and Hemoglobin A1c among African Americans: Rethinking Current Standards of Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis | Abstract

Diabetes Research: Open Access

Diabetes Research: Open Access

Article Type: Review Article

DOI: 10.36502/2021/droa.6175

Diab Res Open Access. 2021 Jan 09;3(1):1-6

Green RT1, Nunlee-Bland G1, Fluitt MB1, Gambhir KK1*
1Division Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Howard University College of Medicine, Howard University, USA

Corresponding Author: Kanwal K. Gambhir, Ph.D ORCID iD
Address: The Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, DC 20060, USA.
Received date: 16 November 2020; Accepted date: 02 January 2021; Published date: 09 January 2021

Citation: Green RT, Nunlee-Bland G, Fluitt MB, Gambhir KK. An Investigation of the Genetic Variability of Metabolic Syndrome and Hemoglobin A1c among African Americans: Rethinking Current Standards of Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis. Diab Res Open Access. 2021 Jan 09;3(1):1-6.

Copyright © 2021 Green RT, Nunlee-Bland G, Fluitt MB, Gambhir KK. This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), African Americans (AAs), Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM), Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS)

Abstract

Biological markers for Metabolic Syndrome, such as serum lipids and Hemoglobin A1c may have genetic variability among African Americans versus their Caucasian American counterparts. Although cases of Type 2 diabetes and its sequela significantly outweigh Caucasian Americans in the US, paradoxically research has found a lower prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among blacks versus whites despite there being higher rates of Type 2 diabetes among the former population. Research has shown Metabolic Syndrome lipid parameters among African Americans are more favorable despite outstanding Type 2 diabetes incidence. With the emergence of the Human Genome Project and Genome Wide Association Studies, genetic differences in these parameters have been uncovered and genetic variability may play a role in such paradoxical mismatch. It may be reasonable to consider modifying Metabolic Syndrome parameters as given this new biological evidence. Hemoglobin A1c, also a biological marker used to monitor glucose levels over time, shows variability in its measurements with respect to African Americans. Genetic factors may play a role in the discrepancies among African Americans populations when using this parameter to monitor blood glucose. Precision medicine is now at the forefront of a biomedical new age, to find therapies that cater to specific populations based on genetic research. African Americans may not benefit from such a revolutionary paradigm shift in medicine due to evidence of lack of inclusivity in such studies like the Human Genome Project. Consideration should be made to the future of molecular medicine to include more minority populations such as African Americans in order to cater to specific differences rather than generalized standards of care.

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