➣ Original Article
➣ Diab Res Open Access. 2019 Nov 11;1(1):7-22
Ruke MG1*, Savai J2
1Consultant Diabetic foot surgeon, Associate professor in surgery GGMC, JJ Hospital, Mumbai, India
2Department of Medical Affairs, JBCPL, Mumbai, India
Corresponding Author: Dr. Milind Gajanan Ruke
Address: Advanced Diabetic Foot Clinic, Business Point, 203d-K Sandhu Marg, Near Malhaar Hotel, Chembur, Mumbai 400071, India; Ph: 9820029711; Email: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Received date: 15 October 2019; Accepted date: 05 November 2019; Published date: 11 November 2019
The world is facing a major epidemic of diabetes mellitus (DM) & available reports suggest that all these patients are at risk of developing diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). Approximately 50 – 60% of all DFUs can be classified as neuropathic. Signs or symptoms of vascular compromise are observed in 40 to 50% of all patients with the vast majority having neuro-ischemic ulcers, and only a minority of patients has purely ischemic ulcers. Diabetic foot infections are usually polymicrobial in nature, involving both aerobes and anaerobes, which can decay any part of the body especially the distal part of the lower leg. However, one of the hidden barriers to wound healing is the presence of biofilm in chronic DFUs. Biofilms are difficult to identify & diagnose, recalcitrant to topical antibiotics & can reoccur even after sharp debridement. More than 90% of chronic wounds are complicated with biofilms. Hence, early identification and management of diabetic foot infections becomes imperative in order to prevent complications & amputation. Debridement is considered to be the gold standard treatment approach for managing DFU manifested with necrotic tissue. However, biofilm can reform even after sharp debridement and can delay healing & recovery. Also, antibiotics & few antiseptics have limited role in managing DFUs complicated with biofilm. Until recently, Cadexomer iodine, a new generation iodine formulation with microbead technology has taken a different profile in wound care. It can effectively manage biofilm along with exudate & possesses superior desloughing action. Additionally, appropriate ways of offloading, dressings & use of newer treatment strategies like negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) and / or use of growth factors can ensure faster healing & early wound closure. Although, commendable efforts in recent years have been taken in the diagnosis and treatment of DFU, it still remains a major public health concern.
Citation: Ruke MG, Savai J. Diabetic Foot Infection, Biofilm & New Management Strategy. Diab Res Open Access. 2019 Nov 11;1(1):7-22.
Copyright © 2019 Ruke MG, Savai J. This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU); Neuropathy; Biofilm; Cadexomer Iodine; Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT); Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT)