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Case Report | Open Access | Asp Biomed Clin Case Rep. 2022 Aug 19;5(3):113-19
Investigation of Insulin Secretion in Glucose Tolerance Test by the Intake of Novel Imeglimin (Twymeeg)
Hiroshi BANDO*, Hiroko OGAWA, Hirohisa URASAKI, Shinji NAGAHIRO, Hiroko URASAKI, Miwako NAKANISHI, Osami WATANABE
Pages: 113-19 | First Published: 19 Aug 2022 | DOI: 10.36502/2022/ASJBCCR.6274
Background: Recent pharmacological studies reveal imeglimin (Twymeeg) including dual mechanisms for stimulating insulin secretion and reducing insulin resistance.
Case Presentation: The case is a 62-year-old male with type 2 diabetes (T2D). He showed HbA1c 6.4% and started imeglimin. After 5 weeks, a 75g oral glucose tolerance test (75gOGTT) was conducted, and the biomarkers were compared with that of 6 months ago. Insulinogenic index (IGI) 0-30min was stable, but insulin secretion was increased during 30-60min and 60-120min.
Discussion: Previous studies of imeglimin revealed improved insulin secretion for GTT. Clinical progress will be followed up with detailed investigation of glucose and insulin variability.
Original Article | Open Access | Asp Biomed Clin Case Rep. 2022 Sept 12;5(3):128-39
Analysis of the Work Environment and Burnout among Nurses, Technicians and Nursing Assistants in Brazilian Institutions
Lucianna Reis Novaes*, Michel Matos de Barros, Fabrício dos Santos Cirino
Pages: 128-39 | First Published: 12 Sept 2022 | DOI: 10.36502/2022/ASJBCCR.6276
In addition to causing damage to the health of patients, the Covid 19 pandemic has brought a greater burden to health systems directly affecting professionals, leading many to physical and emotional exhaustion. The present study aims to demonstrate the perceptions of the professional practice environment of nurses, technicians and nursing assistants through the use of the Environment of Professional Practice research (Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index – PES/NWI) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), in addition to comparing them. The researches were applied in private and public administrative institutions in four Brazilian states, these being Amazonas (AM), Minas Gerais (MG), Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) and Rio de Janeiro (RJ) that are part of the IQG Nursing Certification, from December 2020 to June 2021, with the participation of 1484 professionals from the six invited institutions. The nursing team-physician relationships are identified as the most favorable characteristics of the work environment in the PES/NWI, and the foundations for nursing practice, however, identified as unfavorable to the participation of nursing in hospital affairs and adequacy of personnel and resources. Regarding the dimensions of the MBI research the best results are related to emotional exhaustion. However, the rates of low professional fulfillment were 69.1%. There are impacts on burnout related to emotional exhaustion and professional fulfillment related to the work environment, more frequently in the group of nurses. The analysis showed differences in the perceptions of nurses when compared to nursing assistants and technicians, with attention to inter-professional working relationships and the availability of resources. Therefore, the importance of guiding actions aimed at the management of these health resources is portrayed, with attention to the risk to the quality and safety of care, but also to the health of these professionals. The role of the leader, represented by the nurse, needs more attention and preparation, given its potential in guiding the best practices, professional engagement and promoting changes in the environment of professional practice.
Case Report | Open Access | Asp Biomed Clin Case Rep. 2022 Sept 24;5(3):140-45
2022 Monkeypox Case Report: Beyond Borders and Expectations
Satori IwamotoiD*, Leilani Hernandez, Harrison ChuiD, Hillary ChuiD, Mason Johnstone
Pages: 140-45 | First Published: 24 Sept 2022 | DOI: 10.36502/2022/ASJBCCR.6277
Monkeypox is a zoonotic virus that is in the same family as smallpox. It is primarily spread through various forms of close contact with an infected individual, including direct contact with an infected person’s bodily fluids or surfaces and fabrics that have been contaminated. Its symptoms are generally characterized by rashes or lesions that are firm or supple, restricted to its area, and raised in its center. Vaccines for this disease were actually developed for smallpox. There are two main types of vaccinations: ACAM2000 and 0Jynneos. ACAM2000 uses a live vaccine virus while Jynneos uses a non-replicating virus. Due to the similarity between smallpox and monkeypox, Tpoxx is being researched as a potential treatment. FDA approved Tpoxx – or Tecovirimat – in 2018 as an effective treatment for smallpox after extensive animal trials and safety studies. Currently, the drug is not FDA-approved for monkeypox; however, under an expanded access protocol, it is clinically available. There are two cases presented in this article. The first case was a heterosexual male in his 30s who contracted monkeypox while having multiple sexual encounters with women while moving from tent to tent as an unhoused resident. He also shared pipes with others for recreational marijuana use. This case illustrates that monkeypox is a virus that isn’t restricted to sexuality, especially that of the LGBTQ+ community. To clarify, this virus is not an STI/STD, it’s spread by skin-to-skin contact, contact with an object that was in contact with an infected individual, or contact with respiratory secretions. However, there are fears of singling out the LGBTQ+ community and using the monkeypox virus to stigmatize these communities, much like the AIDS pandemic in the 1980s. In this case, a large proportion of those infected identifies as non-heterosexual, which may just be a result of the nature of a viral illness. Tightly knit groups and communities that spend a lot of time with each other create many opportunities for contact and facilitate disease spread. Second case is a homosexual male in his 60s who received childhood vaccination for smallpox, and yet contracted the monkeyvirus during his travels to Germany and Switzerland, where he had encountered multiple sex partners. This case presents how previous vaccination for smallpox may not be effective against monkeypox virus. Thus, prior smallpox vaccines in the distant past offered no protection against monkeypox and are capable of spreading to people outside of the borders of LGBTQ+ community.
Original Article | Open Access | Asp Biomed Clin Case Rep. 2022 Oct 22;5(3):146-51
Seasonal Variation of Glucose Variability in Rather Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) Treated by Vildagliptin and Metformin (EquMet)
Hiroshi BANDOiD*, Hisako YAMASHITA, Yoshinobu KATO, Takafumi KAWATA, Yoshikane KATO, Hiroe KANAGAWA
Pages: 146-51 | First Published: 22 Oct 2022 | DOI: 10.36502/2022/ASJBCCR.6278
Background: Seasonal variation of HbA1c has been in focus.
Patients and Methods: The protocol included type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients (n=26, 71.4±10.2 years) on vildagliptin and metformin (EquMet) and HbA1c changes in 4 seasons for 6 years.
Results: HbA1c values ranged 6.9-7.5%, and tend to show highest in winter, and rather lower in autumn.
Discussion & Conclusion: Rather elderly T2D cases can tolerate EquMet with fair control. Previous reports showed a similar tendency. Some factors may be involved in the variation, such as temperature, climate, carbohydrate intake, Ramadan, and others. Furthermore, blood pressure and cardiovascular disease (CVD) can also influence them.
Original Article | Open Access | Asp Biomed Clin Case Rep. 2022 Dec 23;5(3):152-64
High Incidence and Mortality Diseases Control is more Imperative Apart from COVID-19 in China
Pages: 152-64 | First Published: 23 Dec 2022 | DOI: 10.36502/2022/ASJBCCR.6279
Objective: In order to enhance the health level, treat and cure well all the diseases, especially the high incidence and mortality diseases. So as to save the life and promote the quality of life. The research has been done to find the facts that that much more death caused diseases apart from the COVID-19 have been killing the people even worse at the COVID-19 pandemic time.
Methods: Summarized the data extracted from three public official internets, the National Bureau of Statistics of China, the WHO and the International Diabetes Federation. Found out the health problems and health influenced diseases data apart from the COVID-19 in China. And analysing the data and facts.
Results: Based on the three channels of official internet, check and look up the valuable data, find out the demanded data and reorganize, build new tables. So the concrete facts to show the critical Chinese health problems apart from COVID-19 have been found.
The 12 tables have been created and found that in China, the leading causes of death are Cardiovascular diseases, Malignant neoplasms, Respiratory diseases, Diabetes mellitus, injuries. The diseases have not been prevented and cured. The total death in China has been being more and more. The communicable diseases of Viral Hepatitis and Pulmonary Tuberculosis have been being the No.1 and No.2 incidences in Chinese communicable infections. The mortality of Heart Diseases in Chinese rural areas has been being in fast trend of heavier and heavier, from 87.10 in 2008 to 171.36 in 2020 and in recent three years the No. 1 killer in Chinese rural areas. The explosively developed incidence of diabetes mellitus from the year 2000 in 22564.80 cases (in 1000s) exploded into 90045.10 cases (in 1000s) at 2011, and much too more cases developed up to now.
Conclusion: In China, much more works must be done to control the leading causes of death, the diseases incidence and prevalence undermining health, including the Cardiovascular diseases, Malignant neoplasms, Respiratory diseases, Diabetes mellitus, injuries apart from COVID-19, especially the heart diseases in Chinese rural areas has been being the No. 1 killer in recent three years. The communicable diseases of Viral Hepatitis and Pulmonary Tuberculosis must be controlled and prevented.
The urgently needed actions to control the leading causes of death, incidence and prevalence apart from COVID-19 in China may be referenced by other countries and international health organizations.
Mini Review | Open Access | Asp Biomed Clin Case Rep. 2023 Jan 05;5(3):165-68
Latest Development of Administration Routes for Anti-Diabetic Agents using Insulin Nanoparticles (NPs)
Pages: 165-68 | First Published: 05 Jan 2023 | DOI: 10.36502/2022/ASJBCCR.6280
For the latest development for anti-diabetic agents, nanoparticles (NPs) have been in focus. Permeation enhancers (PEs) are known to increase the oral absorption of various kinds of macromolecules. One of PEs would be sodium N-[8-(2-hydroxybenzoyl) amino] caprylate (SNAC), which has been used for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) as oral semaglutide (Rybelsus). For insulin encapsulation, polyelectrolyte nanocomplex (PEC) have been the promising carriers. Furthermore, spray drying technique has been an adequate and well-known industrial method for developing pharmaceutical industries, and aqueous polymer dispersions (APDs) have been applied. Consequently, self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) can be expected to improve future diabetic treatment.