- Asploro Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Case Reports
- ISSN: 2582-0370
- Article Type: Original Article
- DOI: 10.36502/2022/ASJBCCR.6264
- Asp Biomed Clin Case Rep. 2022 May 02;5(2):59-62
Assessment of Quality of Life and Respiratory Functional Capacity in Individuals Recovered from COVID-19
Cristianne Confessor Castilho Lopes1*, Daniela dos Santos2, Gizele Locatelli2, Tulio Gamio Dias3, Ana Paula de Oliveira Barbosa4, Eduardo Barbosa Lopes2, Lucas Castilho Lopes5, Vanessa da Silva Barros2, Paulo Sergio Silva6, Fábio Herget Pitanga2, Liamara Basso Dala Costa2, Youssef Elias Ammar7
1University of Joinville Region, Joinville, Santa Catarina, Brazil
2Alto Vale do Rio do Peixe University, Caçadorm, Santa Catarina, Brazil
3USP School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
4University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
5Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil
6UniSociesc, Joinville, Santa Catarina, Brazil
7University of Southern Santa Catarina/Tubarão, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Corresponding Author: Cristianne Confessor Castilho Lopes ORCID iD
Address: University of Joinville Region, Joinville, Santa Catarina, Brazil.
Received date: 30 March 2022; Accepted date: 25 April 2022; Published date: 02 May 2022
Citation: Lopes CCC, dos Santos D, Locatelli G, Dias TG, Barbosa APO, Lopes EB, Lopes LC, Barros VS, Silva PS, Pitanga FH, Costa LBD, Ammar YE. Assessment of Quality of Life and Respiratory Functional Capacity in Individuals Recovered from COVID 19. Asp Biomed Clin Case Rep. 2022 May 02;5(2):59-62.
Copyright © 2022 Lopes CCC, dos Santos D, Locatelli G, Dias TG, Barbosa APO, Lopes EB, Lopes LC, Barros VS, Silva PS, Pitanga FH, Costa LBD, Ammar YE. This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: Covid-19, Respiratory System, Quality of Life
Covid-19 is an infectious disease that causes inflammation in the respiratory system, is contagious and spreads rapidly. The sequelae caused after infection and treatment of Covid-19 are not fully known. The study aims to evaluate the quality of life and respiratory capacity of individuals who have been contaminated by the Covid-19 virus. This study is characterized as descriptive, with a cross-sectional design and a quantitative-qualitative approach. The sample consisted of 54 participants, of both sexes, diagnosed with Covid-19, who were hospitalized or not. Data collection was carried out through a mixed online questionnaire, developed on the Google Docs® platform. The results pointed to a worse quality of life in the domains Limitations due to physical aspects, Pain, Vitality, Limitations due to emotional aspects and a better quality of life for the domains Functional Capacity, General State of Health and Mental Health. And a worse quality of life assessed from the respiratory disease. It is concluded that the quality of life was affected and impaired after being affected by Covid-19 and that Physiotherapy helps to improve the sequelae and resumption of day-to-day activities, generating a good recovery.
Coronaviruses are considered RNA viruses that cause respiratory infections, which can cause anything from a cold to more serious diseases, such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) . In December 2019, the China Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported a new coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2 and reported a first stage of an outbreak, which was named by the World Health Organization as COVID-19 .
SARS-CoV-2 is an infectious disease that generates inflammation in the respiratory system, contagious and rapidly spreading, the main ones being characterized by being similar to a common flu condition and can manifest in a mild form, pneumonia, severe pneumonia and Syndrome. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), which can lead to death, especially the elderly or individuals who already have other comorbidities, as these may present in an atypical way and rapidly worsen .
Post-recovery of Covid-19 in survivors is still being studied, but it was observed that there are significant pulmonary sequelae such as lung damage and other organ damage, possibly those affected return to normal life, but a large number of these may have abnormalities. in residual ventilation and diffusion of blood phases, among other abnormalities, but the severity of these functional lung abnormalities depends on factors such as age, length of stay, disease severity, and medications for each patient .
Physiotherapy is one of the areas facing the fight against Covid-19, and can be present from prevention to the treatment of the most serious cases and / or sequels. The main physical therapy goals of the physiotherapeutic approach to respiratory function are to reduce complications, preserve lung function, prevent and improve dysfunctions and disabilities, improve quality of life, and help with anxiety and depression. There is no specific technique to be used in all patients in general, the physical therapist must evaluate the procedures addressed by scientific entities, plans and protocols of each hospital and especially the clinical indicators specific to each case .
The study is characterized as descriptive, with a cross-sectional design and a quantitative-qualitative approach. The sample consisted of up to 54 participants, of both sexes, diagnosed with Covid-19, who were or were not hospitalized. Data collection was carried out through a mixed online questionnaire, developed on the Google Docs® platform. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding the characteristics of the sample, the SF-36 quality of life assessment questionnaire and the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) respiratory disease assessment questionnaire, and all participants had access to the Free and Informed Consent (ICF).
Results and Discussion
The sample consisted of 54 participants, of both genders, with a mean age of 45.5 years for men and 39.2 years for women. Of these, 67% were married/consensual union.
We observed that respondents were contaminated between the years 2020 and 2021, only 33% were hospitalized, with an average of 11 days hospitalized. 73% were hospitalized in the clinical wing of the hospitals and 89% used oxygen. Regarding the performance of physical therapy in the hospital environment during the period of hospitalization, 45% responded that they had performed both motor and respiratory physical therapy. Of these, 78% were instructed to continue with physical therapy in a clinical manner and 89% were still undergoing treatment on the day they responded to this survey.
Table-1 represents the results of the quality of life assessment carried out using the SF-36 questionnaire. We observed that most scores presented values closer to zero (0) considering these domains with a worse quality of life (Limitations due to physical aspects, Pain, Vitality, Limitations due to emotional aspects), while the domains of Functional Capacity, General State of Health and Mental Health presented results closer to 100, which can be considered as having a better quality of life.
Table-1: Quality of life assessment using the SF-36 questionnaire
According to Rosa and Falavigna (2021), patients coming from hospital admission due to Covid-19 may develop predetermining factors triggering physical, cognitive and/or psychological disorders, leading to a prolonged recovery, providing a greater input of health resources and possible impairment. in terms of quality of life .
Table-2 evaluates the quality of life from the clinical part of the respiratory disease, in this case, the disease that caused respiratory distress was Covid-19. This questionnaire has a total score of 76 points divided into three domains (Symptoms, Impact and Activity), with values close to zero (0) classified as better quality of life and results closer to one hundred (100) are classified as worse. quality of life. Observing the results of the sample, the score is closer to one hundred (100), which conditions them with a worse quality of life.
Table-2: Quality of life assessment using the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ)
Covid-19 causes changes in the respiratory tract, which can range from mild pneumonia to a severe condition, presenting symptoms that alter routines, interfering with daily life activities and consecutively decreasing quality of life .
Participants, at the end of the questionnaire, also reported how they felt after being affected by Covid-19 and how physical therapy helped in this recovery. We can see that the majority reported feeling fatigue, lack of memory and dyspnea, which were alleviated with physical therapy, which also helped them to return to daily activities. The minority reported that they had no sequelae and that they did not need to perform Physiotherapy sessions.
It is concluded that the quality of life was affected and impaired after being affected by Covid-19, whether the individual was hospitalized or not and that Physiotherapy helps to improve the sequelae and resumption of day-to-day activities, generating a good recovery.
Conflict of Interest
The authors have read and approved the final version of the manuscript. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
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