Asploro Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Case Reports
Article Type: Case Report
Asp Biomed Clin Case Rep. 2021 Feb 17;4(1):54-59
Mohammed Abdel-Rahim1*, Jeffrey Chow1, Mayank Singhal1
1Campbell University/Cape Fear Valley Medical Center, USA
Corresponding Author: Mohammed Abdel-Rahim ORCID iD
Address: Cape Fear Valley Medical Center, 1638 Owen Dr, Fayetteville, NC 28304, USA.
Received date: 08 January 2021; Accepted date: 10 February 2021; Published date: 17 February 2021
Citation: Abdel-Rahim M, Chow J, Singhal M. Immune-Mediated Encephalopathy in the Setting of Legionnaires Disease: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. Asp Biomed Clin Case Rep. 2021 Feb 17;4(1):54-59.
Copyright © 2021 Abdel-Rahim M, Chow J, Singhal M. This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: Legionella, Legionella Pneumonia, Legionnaires Disease, Encephalopathy
Background: Legionnaires disease is the systemic manifestation of an infection by the gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila. It most commonly presents with pneumonia, but can also cause extrapulmonary manifestations like cardiac, renal, gastrointestinal as well as neurologic symptoms like encephalopathy. It tends to occur in people who are elderly, immunocompromised and those with impaired respiratory (smokers) or cardiac (advanced heart failure) functions. The Legionella Urinary antigen is commonly used to diagnose Legionella infection. Almost half of the patients diagnosed with Legionnaires disease exhibit neurologic signs and symptoms. These neurologic abnormalities are usually not evident on neuroimaging, laboratory findings, and neuropathology.
Key Clinical Message
We present a case of Legionnaires disease in a patient with clinical features of pneumonia who was found to develop signs and symptoms of encephalopathy. Neuroimaging and lumbar puncture was negative for an identifiable cause of encephalopathy.