Hiroshi Bando1,2*, Koji Ebe2,3, Tetsuo Muneta2,4, Masahiro Bando5, Yoshikazu Yonei6
1Tokushima University,/ Medical Research, Tokushima, Japan
2Japan Low Carbohydrate Diet Promotion Association, Kyoto, Japan
3Takao Hospital, Kyoto, Japan
4Muneta Maternity Clinic, Chiba, Japan
5Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan
6Anti-Aging Medical Research Center, Graduate School of Life and Medical Sciences, Doshisha University Graduate School, Kyoto, Japan
Corresponding Author: Hiroshi Bando, MD, PhD, FACP
Address: Tokushima University /Medical Research, Nakashowa 1-61, Tokushima 770-0943, Japan.
Received date: 22 December 2018; Accepted date: 02 January 2019; Published date: 09 January 2019
Background: There have been lots of discussion and controversy concerning the difference between Low Carbohydrate Diet (LCD) and Calorie Restriction (CR). The important points include glucose variability, glucose-lowering effect, weight reduction degree and influence on lipid metabolism.
Subjects and Methods: Enrolled subjects were 47 patients with T2DM. Methods included the study for providing subjects CR meal with 60% carbohydrate on day 1-2 and LCD meal with 12% on day 3-14. Daily profile of blood glucose was studied seven times a day on day 2 and day 4. Further, biomarkers including HbA1c, average blood glucose, and M value were investigated and analyzed for mutual correlations.
Results: Subjects were categorized into 4 groups according to the average glucose value, which were 124mg/dL, 160mg/dL, 206mg/dL, and 281mg/dL, respectively. Data in 4 groups were as follows: Number; 12,12,12,11, Male/Female; 6/6, 3/9, 6/6, 5/6, mean age; 51.3, 60.9, 65.3, 60.6 years old, HbA1c; 6.1%, 7.1%, 8.0%, 8.9%, fasting glucose on day 2; 109 mg/dL, 136 mg/dL, 178 mg/dL, 224mg/dL, respectively. Daily profiles of blood glucose in 4 groups on day 4 were remarkably decreased than those of day 2. The levels of M value indicating average blood glucose and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) on day 2 vs 4 were compared in 4 groups, which are 7.1 vs 10.5, 39.7 vs 5.0, 139 vs 15.7, 367 vs88, respectively. Correlations among HbA1c, M value and average blood glucose showed significant correlations (p<0.01).
Discussion and Conclusion: Obtained results showed that the distribution of daily profile of blood glucose in 4 groups is separated. Further similar tendency was observed in HbA1c and M value.
Citation: Bando H, Ebe K, Muneta T, et al., “Difference of Glucose variability between Low Carbohydrate Diet (LCD) and Calorie Restriction (CR)”. Asp Biomed Clin Case Rep, vol.2, no.s1: 4-15, 2019.
Copyright © 2019 Bando H, Ebe K, Muneta T, et al., This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Key Words: Glucose variability; Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); Low Carbohydrate Diet (LCD); Morbus value (M value); Calorie Restriction (CR)
Abbreviation: LCD: Low Carbohydrate Diet; T2DM: Type 2 diabetes mellitus; CR: Calorie Restriction; IRI: Immunoreactive Insulin; M value: Morbus value; HOMA-R: Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance; HOMA-β: Homeostasis Model Assessment of β Cell Function.