Diabetes Research: Open Access
Article Type: Review Article
Diab Res Open Access. 2020 Nov 23;2(3):79-84
Gupta BL1*, Prasad G2
1Department of Zoology, J.K. College, Biraul, Darbhanga, Bihar, India
2Mycotoxin and Seed Pathology Laboratory, University Department of Botany, L.N. Mithila University, Darbhanga, Bihar, India
Corresponding Author: Bihari L. Gupta
Address: Department of Zoology, J.K. College, Biraul, Darbhanga, Bihar-847203, India.
Received date: 03 October 2020; Accepted date: 16 November 2020; Published date: 23 November 2020
Citation: Gupta BL, Prasad G. Diabetes, Immunity and Defense System: A Paradox in Treatment. Diab Res Open Access. 2020 Nov 23;2(3):79-84.
Copyright © 2020 Gupta BL, Prasad G. This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: Pentose Phosphate Pathway (PPP), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), Glutathione Reductase (GR), Oxidised Glutathione (GSSG), Reduced Glutathione (GSH)
Hyperglycemia has been the primary metabolic condition for the origin of diabetic complications. The glucose in the cell is underutilized due to diminished entry of glucose into the cell and down-regulation of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway. The PPP is the potential pathway in maintaining the defense of the cell through GPx, GR, GSH, and GSSG. Particularly, GPx and GSH levels diminish in diabetes. Constipation in diabetes also plays an important role in decreasing the immune system as the excess glucose in the gut lining enhances the number of gut bacteria and fungi. Antioxidants have not been proved to enhance the immune and defense of cells in diabetes but the exhibitory roles of herbal medicines have been potential in exaggerating the immune and defense system by their unknown modulators and enhancers molecules. Turmeric and black pepper have been proven to enhance the immune and defense of the body in diabetics.