Whether saturated fatty acid (SFA) has a clinical influence on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or not has been disputed. Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study was recently summarized from 21 countries with about 150 thousand data. Dairy intake was negatively correlated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the incidence of diabetes and hypertension. To increase the intake of dairy products would be easy and inexpensive to continue for treatment. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) may reduce atherosclerotic diseases with beneficial effects. Clinical evidence of SFA will be hopefully accumulated for practice and research in the future.