2022 Monkeypox Case Report: Beyond Borders and Expectations

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2022 Monkeypox Case Report: Beyond Borders and Expectations

Satori Iwamoto1iD*, Leilani Hernandez1, Harrison Chu1iD, Hillary Chu1iD, Mason Johnstone1
1California Northstate University College of Medicine, Elk Grove, California, USA

Corresponding Author: Satori Iwamoto ORCID iD
Address: California Northstate University College of Medicine, 9700 W Taron Dr, Elk Grove, California, USA.
Received date: 23 August 2022; Accepted date: 17 September 2022; Published date: 24 September 2022

Citation: Iwamoto S, Hernandez L, Chu H, Chu H, Johnstone M. 2022 Monkeypox Case Report: Beyond Borders and Expectations. Asp Biomed Clin Case Rep. 2022 Sept 24;5(3):140-45.

Copyright © 2022 Iwamoto S, Hernandez L, Chu H, Chu H, Johnstone M. This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium provided the original work is properly cited.

Keywords: Monkeypox, Monkeyvirus, Zoonotic Virus, Smallpox, Case Report

Abstract

Monkeypox is a zoonotic virus that is in the same family as smallpox. It is primarily spread through various forms of close contact with an infected individual, including direct contact with an infected person’s bodily fluids or surfaces and fabrics that have been contaminated. Its symptoms are generally characterized by rashes or lesions that are firm or supple, restricted to its area, and raised in its center. Vaccines for this disease were actually developed for smallpox. There are two main types of vaccinations: ACAM2000 and 0Jynneos. ACAM2000 uses a live vaccine virus while Jynneos uses a non-replicating virus. Due to the similarity between smallpox and monkeypox, Tpoxx is being researched as a potential treatment. FDA approved Tpoxx - or Tecovirimat - in 2018 as an effective treatment for smallpox after extensive animal trials and safety studies. Currently, the drug is not FDA-approved for monkeypox; however, under an expanded access protocol, it is clinically available. There are two cases presented in this article. The first case was a heterosexual male in his 30s who contracted monkeypox while having multiple sexual encounters with women while moving from tent to tent as an unhoused resident. He also shared pipes with others for recreational marijuana use. This case illustrates that monkeypox is a virus that isn’t restricted to sexuality, especially that of the LGBTQ+ community. To clarify, this virus is not an STI/STD, it's spread by skin-to-skin contact, contact with an object that was in contact with an infected individual, or contact with respiratory secretions. However, there are fears of singling out the LGBTQ+ community and using the monkeypox virus to stigmatize these communities, much like the AIDS pandemic in the 1980s. In this case, a large proportion of those infected identifies as non-heterosexual, which may just be a result of the nature of a viral illness. Tightly knit groups and communities that spend a lot of time with each other create many opportunities for contact and facilitate disease spread. Second case is a homosexual male in his 60s who received childhood vaccination for smallpox, and yet contracted the monkeyvirus during his travels to Germany and Switzerland, where he had encountered multiple sex partners. This case presents how previous vaccination for smallpox may not be effective against monkeypox virus. Thus, prior smallpox vaccines in the distant past offered no protection against monkeypox and are capable of spreading to people outside of the borders of LGBTQ+ community.