Myelodysplastic Syndrome Type Refractory Anemia with Ringed Sideroblasts According to the WHO Classification: A Case Report and Literature Review

Torres ME*, Huerta KG

Address: María Eugenia Torres-Pérez M.D., Internal Medicine Department, Hospital Beneficencia Española de Puebla, Calle 19 norte 1001 Colonia Jesús García, Puebla City, México.


Introduction: The myelodysplastic syndromes integrate a group of clonal disorders characterized by progressive cytopenias and dishematopoiesis causing a disruption in the normal function of the three hematopoietic lines. There are two types of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), the primary one which is idiopathic and the secondary type or acquired commonly associated with antineoplastic drugs. Diagnosis can be clinically suspected or found out in control routine blood studies. However, it is a matter of necessity to know the clinical manifestations, treatment options and prognosis of patients who suffer from these syndromes.

Methods: Retrospective, observational study in which we present the case of a 73-year-old woman who presented idiopathic myelodysplastic syndrome, we obtained and analyzed information with the clinical chart of the patient, not only do we evaluate the clinical history but also her risk factors, clinical manifestations, treatment, and final outcomes. A bone marrow sample corroborated a refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts type of MDS in this patient. Added to this case report we made a short literature review of myelodysplastic syndromes.

Results: In spite of all medical and therapeutical efforts, after a long-time treatment, multiple blood transfusions and clinical progressive deterioration with recurrent low hemoglobin ranges and chronic anemia, the patient deceased six months after MDS diagnosis.

Conclusions: Myelodysplastic syndromes are most common in the elderly population; patients with chronic diseases have a higher risk for presenting MDS, the chronic cytopenias due to these syndromes predispose to a high mortality risk and decrease in life quality becoming an important public health problem.